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Learning Zone
Grammar

Adjectives formed from other parts of speech

Level: B1

ADJECTIVES MADE OUT OF VERB

VERB + -ABLE/ BLE

Adjective express something possible or simple to do:

admire – admirable
play – playable
move – movable

VERB + -IVE

Adjective express trait: 

create – creative
act – active
explode – explosive

VERB + -ED

Adjective express effect:

move – moved
limit – limited

VERB + -ING

Adjective express “causing effect”: amuse – amusing
surprise – surprising


ADJECTIVES MADE OUT OF NOUNS

NOUN + -OUS

Adjective express “having this particular trait”:

danger – dangerous
fame – famous
ambition – ambitious

NOUN + -Y

Adjective express state:

anger – angry
hunger – hungry
noise – noisy

NOUN + -FUL

Adjective express “full of something”:

beauty – beautiful
faith – faithful
skill – skilful

NOUN + -ING

Adjective express “causing effect”:

interest – interesting
will – willing

NOUN + -LESS

Adjective express “without something”:

home – homeless
child – childless
hope – hopeless

NOUN + -AL

Adjective express “referring to something”:

nation – national
nature – natural
culture – cultural

NOUN + -AN

Adjective express “belongs to somebody or something”:

America – American
Russia – Russian
Christ – Christian


SPELLING RULES

Sometimes the spelling changes when we add the ending to the verb or noun.

Remember:

 -closing -e disappear but ending -less is an exception to this rule:

admire – admirable
surprise – surprised
home – homeless
hope – hopeless

-nouns ending with -er creating adjective by adding an ending -y loses-e, ending -ous is an exception to this rule:

hunger – hungry
anger – angry
danger – dangerous


NATIONALITIES

It is worth mentioning adjectives based on the names of countries and describing people, places, languages, etc.
Very often noun expressing nationality has the same form as an adjective. 

CREATING ADJECTIVES (AND NOUNS) FROM COUNTRY NAMES

country name adjective/noun ending with -an
America
Australia
Belgium
Chile
Germany
Hungary
India
Italy
Mexico
Russia
American
Australian
Belgian
Chilean
German
Hungarian
Indian
Italian
Mexican
Russian

This is Mexican food.
She’s Italian. She lives in Italy.

Nouns

country name adjective/noun ending with -ese
China
Japan
Portugal
Vietnam
Chinese
Japanese
Portuguese
Vietnamese

I love Japanese food.
He’s Japanese. He comes from Tokio

country name: adjective/noun ending with -ish inhabitant:
Great Britan
England
Denmark
Finland
Ireland
Poland
Scotland
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
British
English
Danish
Finnish
Irish
Polish
Scottish
Spanish
Swedish
Turkish
Briton
Englishman/Englishwoman
Dane
Finn
Irishman/Irishwoman
Pole
Scot
Spaniard
Swede
Turk

I like Spanish football teams.
Tom is English.
Tom is an Englishman.

Nouns

country name: adjective/noun ending with -i
Iraq
Israel
Pakistan
Iraqi
Israeli
Pakistani

The most famous Iraqi river is the Euphrates River.
Most Iraqi are Muslim.

 

country name: Irregular noun & adjective inhabitant
France
Greece
Holland
Switzerland
Wales
French
Greek
Dutch
Swiss
Welsh
Frenchman/Frenchwoman
Greek
Dutchman/Dutchwoman
Swiss
Welshman/Welshwoman 

This famous Welshman lives in Cardiff.
Frenchwomen like Swiss watches.

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