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Grammar

Adverb – basic information and gradation of adverbs

Level: A1, A2

ADVERBS’ DIVISION

An adverb is a part of speech answering questions: How? When? Where?

An adverb describes a verb and adjective, should not be mistaken for adjective describing a noun.

TYPES OF ADVERB:

 Adverb of manner

Questions: How? In what way?
well, slowly, carefully

Adverb of place 

Questions: Where? From where?downstairs, upstairs, there, everywhere

Adverb of time

Questions: When? How long?

soon, still, yesterday, now

Adverb of frequency

Question: How frequently?

always, usually, often, never

Adverb of degree

Questions: How much? In what degree?

very, rather, really, quite

Adverb of probability

Question: With or what probability?

maybe, certainly, probably, surely

Below are examples of using different adverbs in sentences:

Tina drives carefully.
He’s gone upstairs.
Where were you yesterday?
I’ve never been to Japan.
The film was quite good.
He’s probably right.


FORMATION OF THE ADVERBS

Most adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree and probability are created by adding an ending -ly to the adjective:

bad – badly
quiet – quietly
sudden – suddenly

Sometimes little changes in spelling can appear:

y ily

happy – happily
lazy – lazily

ic ically

automatic – automatically
fanatic – fanatically

le ly

sensible-sensibly
probable-probably

l lly

beautiful – beautifully
careful – carefully

The finale -e is usually kept:

extreme – extremely
safe – safely

When an adjective ends with -ly then adding another the same ending is impossible.

friendly – in a friendly way


COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Comparison of adverbs is similar to the comparison of adjectives. We compare adverbs by adding an ending -er/ -est or in a descriptive way of using more and most.

SHORT ADVERBS

Monosyllabic adverbs and an exception adverb early create comparative and superlative by adding an ending -er/ -est.

hard harder – the hardest
early – earlier – the earliest

I work harder than you.
Oh, you are earlier at work than usual.

DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON

Disyllabic or more syllabic adverbs are compared by adding more and most.

carefully – more carefully – the most carefully
happily – more happily – the most happily

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