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Learning Zone
Grammar

Nouns – creating from different parts of speech

Level: B1

Nouns can be created from different parts of speech by adding correct ending and by changing spelling a little.

NOUNS CREATED OUT OF VERBS

Verb + -er  express people or devices performing some activity; this group includes names of professions, hobbyists, athletes and character traits as well:

teach – teacher
play – player
lead – leader

If a verb ends with -e, then we add only -r:

manage – manager
lose – loser
compose – composer

There is a group of verbs where we add an ending -or:

create – creator
detect – detector

Verb + ing express performing an activity:

cook – cooking
climb – climbing

Verb + -ance/ -ence/ -anty/ -ency express activity, state or quality:

continue – continuance
appear – appearance

Verb + -ion express activity or process:

digest – digestion
react – reaction

Verb + -ment  express activity, process or effect:

develop – development
disappoint – disappointment


NOUN CREATED OUT OF ANOTHER NOUN

Noun + -hood express a group of people, some type of relation between people or the character of something:

brother – brotherhood
mother – motherhood

Noun + -ship express social position or  kind of relationship between people:

friend – friendship
lord – lordship

Noun + -ist express person performing activity or specialize in a particular branch:

motor – motorist
piano – pianist


NOUN CREATED OUT OF ADJECTIVES

Adjective + -ness  express an abstract noun defining a state or quality:

happy – happiness
ugly – ugliness

Adjective + -ist  express a person with a set of beliefs:

social – socialist
ideal – idealist

Adjective + -ism express a name of a theory or idea:

social – socialism
ideal – idealism

Adjective + -dom express state:

wise – wisdom
free – freedom

SPELLING RULES

  • if monosyllabic verb end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel then the final consonant undergoes doubling:

swim – swimmer – swimming
rob – robber – robbing

  • if disyllabic or multisyllabic word end with a consonant preceded by a single vowel the stress is put on the last syllable. The last consonant undergoes doubling:

admit – admittance

  • closing -e in a verb trail away before endings -ence/ -ance, -ation , -ion, -ing:

different – difference
dive – diving
restore – restoration

  • if a word ends with -y, it changes in -i  provided it is preceded by a consonant. In the last example final -y is preceded by a vowel:

happy – happiness
curly – curliness

  • before ending -ence/ -ance most of the adjectives ending with a consonant + -t lose final -t:

different – difference
tolerant – tolerance

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