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Learning Zone
Learning Zone
Grammar

Nouns – creating from different parts of speech

Level: B1
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NOUNS CREATED OUT OF VERBS
NOUN CREATED OUT OF ANOTHER NOUN
NOUN CREATED OUT OF ADJECTIVES

Nouns can be created from different parts of speech by adding correct ending and by changing spelling a little.

NOUNS CREATED OUT OF VERBS

Verb + -er  express people or devices performing some activity; this group includes names of professions, hobbyists, athletes and character traits as well:

teach – teacher
play – player
lead – leader

If a verb ends with -e, then we add only -r:

manage – manager
lose – loser
compose – composer

There is a group of verbs where we add an ending -or:

create – creator
detect – detector

Verb + ing express performing an activity:

cook – cooking
climb – climbing

Verb + -ance/ -ence/ -anty/ -ency express activity, state or quality:

continue – continuance
appear – appearance

Verb + -ion express activity or process:

digest – digestion
react – reaction

Verb + -ment  express activity, process or effect:

develop – development
disappoint – disappointment


NOUN CREATED OUT OF ANOTHER NOUN

Noun + -hood express a group of people, some type of relation between people or the character of something:

brother – brotherhood
mother – motherhood

Noun + -ship express social position or  kind of relationship between people:

friend – friendship
lord – lordship

Noun + -ist express person performing activity or specialize in a particular branch:

motor – motorist
piano – pianist


NOUN CREATED OUT OF ADJECTIVES

Adjective + -ness  express an abstract noun defining a state or quality:

happy – happiness
ugly – ugliness

Adjective + -ist  express a person with a set of beliefs:

social – socialist
ideal – idealist

Adjective + -ism express a name of a theory or idea:

social – socialism
ideal – idealism

Adjective + -dom express state:

wise – wisdom
free – freedom

SPELLING RULES

  • if monosyllabic verb end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel then the final consonant undergoes doubling:

swim – swimmer – swimming
rob – robber – robbing

  • if disyllabic or multisyllabic word end with a consonant preceded by a single vowel the stress is put on the last syllable. The last consonant undergoes doubling:

admit – admittance

  • closing -e in a verb trail away before endings -ence/ -ance, -ation , -ion, -ing:

different – difference
dive – diving
restore – restoration

  • if a word ends with -y, it changes in -i  provided it is preceded by a consonant. In the last example final -y is preceded by a vowel:

happy – happiness
curly – curliness

  • before ending -ence/ -ance most of the adjectives ending with a consonant + -t lose final -t:

different – difference
tolerant – tolerance

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