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How to practice & improve CAE vocabulary (Tips & List PDF) | C1 Advanced

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C1 Advanced (CAE): Vocabulary Tips
C1 Advanced (CAE): Vocabulary List
C1 Advanced (CAE): Vocabulary List - Download PDF


Having a good knowledge of diverse English vocabulary is very important for doing well in the C1 Advanced exam. Therefore,  more of your time should be spent on improving your vocabulary.

In the exam, you will find exercises on commonly known topics, however, the CAE vocabulary will be more advanced (less general, more specialized or scientific) than it was in the FCE exam.

In addition to common topics, you will also find exercises on topics which are not typical (e.g. “development of artificial intelligence, restoration of the bear species, the beauty of painting”). This means you need to read and improve your English vocabulary on a wide variety of topics.

C1 Advanced (CAE): Vocabulary Tips

Tip 1: Read, read and read again

Cat learning new CAE vocabularyFirst of all, to have a good knowledge of English vocabulary, you need to read a lot. And, then, you need to read more and more… 🙂

Reading is an extremely important part of solidly building and improving your CAE vocabulary. Not only will you learn new words by reading, but your mind will also be constantly working, trying to identify the meaning of words based on context.

Therefore, read as much as you can and use various sources of information.Reading newspapers, magazines, academic texts, blogs in English and other print material will introduce you to new words.

What if you don’t like reading?

Don’t worry, you can always listen to audiobooks and podcasts on different subjects.

There are many places with interesting videos where professionals present materials on many different topics, for example:

If you don’t understand everything, use the transcript and a dictionary.

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Tip 2: Learn Roots

English learning board for the C1 Advanced examTo build a strong foundation for your CAE vocabulary, it’s helpful to understand the roots of words.  Most words in the English language originate from either Latin or Greek.

What are roots of words?

By finding the origin of a word and its original meaning, it is much easier to remember them in the long run, and also to quickly understand new ones. Once you learn a root, you’ll begin to understand more words that use the same root.

Rest assured that this is actually one of the most effective ways that you learn.

Tip 3: Research the meanings of words

Study materials for the CAE examIf you want to expand your CAE vocabulary, you should buy an English-English dictionary and thesaurus.

In the English-English dictionary, you will usually find examples of sentences showing how to use the word in everyday situations. Giving context will help you remember the word better.

Dictionaries also provide the origin of words, the so-called “root”. This information will help you help you understand the meaning of other words with the same root.

Meanwhile, the thesaurus is a great tool that allows you to see how you can replace a word you know with other words that have the same meaning. This can be especially useful when writing your CAE essay. You will avoid repetitions that may lower your score.

Tip 4: Create associations

Idea for new vocabulary C1To remember new words better, you can use memorising techniques. You should try to find some patterns and use appropriate mnemonics so that you can remember the connections between words more effectively.

  • Associations can help you remember specific words and phrases. For example, the word “gargantuan” means very big. Try to create a sequence with this word, such as tiny, small, medium, large, giant and gargantuan. Making associations can help you remember the words you learn more easily.
  • It is also worth grouping words with similar sounds and memorising several words at once. You can try to group words together by topic, common core, meaning, or origin. For example, the adjectives underpaid, full-time, and stressful can be grouped together because they are all work-related.

Tip 5: Play word games

Word games to help you prepare for the C1 examWhen you learning new CAE vocabulary, don’t forget to have fun.

If learning English is just a burden for you, it will be boring and you will not achieve good results. Therefore, it is important to stay motivated and enjoy learning a new language. Find ways to add fun to your studies. For example, you can play word games with friends to improve your vocabulary and have fun.

There are many board games that are a great supplement to learning, but the most popular of them is Scrabble. To learn even more words, you can play with the English-English dictionary.

If you don’t like board games, you can always choose online games, countless of which can be found on the Internet.

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Tip 6: Choose a variety of materials

The photo shows a newspaper in English where you can find interesting articlesTry to diversify what you read. Varying your reading choices can help you build a large base of diverse vocabulary. When you read about many topics, you expand your knowledge about different problems. The CAE exam may include very specialized topics, such as ecological energy sources or classical music. Therefore, you need to have extensive knowledge.

Additionally, each author has his own individual writing style and builds sentences in a specific way, so you will be able to see different patterns.

Below are some websites and resources for reading materials you can use:

Tip 7: Focus on specific CAE vocabulary topics

As already mentioned, it is quite difficult to predict what topics will be used in the C1 Advanced (CAE) exam. To do well in the CAE exam, you need to learn English vocabulary on various topics.

However, there is a certain group of topics that you can expect on the exam…

We suggest focusing especially on the topics listed below:

The environment
vocabulary connected to climate change, environmental hazards, animals and plants at risk of extinction, discoveries of new species etc..
The arts
vocabulary connected to famous painters or sculptors, classical music, modern art, dance, the most interesting writers and literature, etc.
vocabulary connected to the cosmos, the latest scientific discoveries, new theories, how scientists do research etc..
vocabulary connected to different types of sports, sports equipment, sports competitions, famous athletes
vocabulary connected to illnesses, new medical achievements, medical treatment, things to improve our health
Social issues
vocabulary connected to problems in society, social change, economic conditions
vocabulary connected to how people do their jobs, work-related issues, unemployment
Business and economics
vocabulary related to setting up companies, how companies operate, and economic growth
vocabulary related to stress, mental disorders and how our minds affect who we are
vocabulary related to the invention of things and the impact of inventions on society
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Tip 8: Skip irrelevant topics

There is a certain group of topics you won’t find used in the exam and you don’t have to learn the vocabulary for:

  • Politics
  • Religion
  • Sex and sexuality
  • Illegal drug use
  • War
  • Terrorism

The CAE exam must be universal because it is taken by both children and adults in different countries, so controversial topics are avoided.

Tip 9: Improve general vocabulary

In addition to expanding your knowledge of specific topics, you should also improve your general vocabulary, one that is not limited to one specific type of topic but can be used in almost any type of topic:

expressions people use when they want to say how they feel physically or emotionally
Academic research
words typically used by academics to explain their theories or how they conduct research – survey, indicate, hypothesis etc…
vocabulary usually used to express opinions on a given topic
vocabulary that people use to express different probabilities of what will or will not happen
words and phrases which are used to connect sentences – e.g. besides, although, since
Phrasal verbs
uses of phrasal verbs – e.g. come apart, get into, back out etc…
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Tip 10: Use Flashcards

The photo shows flashcards To make it easier to remember new English words, you should make and use flashcards.

On one side of the flashcard, write a new word; on the other, write the definition in English or draw a picture associated with this word.

Remember to make your flashcards legible and understandable. It may be helpful to write them in a bold colour. Flashcards are an easy and effective way to memorize new English vocabulary.

Review your flashcards as often as possible: on the bus, during a break at work or at university, during a meal, etc. Thanks to this, you will easily acquire a large amount of vocabulary.

Tip 11: Keep a journal of new CAE vocabulary

Books for learning English It’s a great idea to keep a journal of your new vocabulary.

Every time you hear or see a word you’re not familiar with, note it down. Such a list will consolidate the newly learned words and encourage you to expand the list.

Always try to have a pen and notebook with you. Unless you prefer, keep a journal on your phone or computer.  This will allow you to review or add new information whenever you learn a new word. But in fact, no matter what you choose, what matters is that you are systematic in keeping a journal.

C1 Advanced (CAE): Vocabulary List

Below you will find a sample vocabulary list divided into individual topics at the C1 level for the CAE exam.

You can also download a PDF at the very bottom of the article.

biodegradableable to be broken down by living organisms such as bacteria, which is then safe for the environment
carbon-neutraldescribing a state in which the carbon dioxide emission reaches zero or there is a balance between the amount of carbon dioxide emitted and absorbed
zero-emissionnot producing gases harmful to the environment
crude unprocessed and in raw form
ecologicalrelated to the connection between animals, plants, and humans and their environment
free-rangerelated to a type of farming in which animals and birds can move around and eat freely, instead of being kept in a limited area
to contaminateto make decayed leaves, plants, or other organic waste into a mixture that can improve the soil’s quality to help plants grow more quickly
to compostwhen a place is covered with water
to dumpto get rid of waste material, particularly in an unorganized manner
to refineto remove unwanted or harmful substances from another substance
to reuseto use something once more, usually for a different purpose
conservationistsomeone who makes efforts to protect the environment and wildlife from any type of harm
eco-anxietya feeling of great worry regarding the current and future state of the environment threatened by humans
disposalthe act of getting rid of waste material
dumpera truck with a container that can elevate to unload waste material
loggingthe act of cutting down trees to use their wood
carbon monoxidean odorless, colorless, and poisonous gas that is produced from the burning of fossil fuels, which proves lethal in some cases
microplasticvery small plastic pieces in the environment that originate from personal care products, clothing, etc. and the degradation of other plastic products
pylona tall metal structure used for carrying high-voltage power lines above the ground
ozone layerprotective layer in the Earth’s atmosphere that protects from UV radiation
reactora large machine or structure used for producing nuclear energy
hydroelectricityelectricity that is produced from the power of water
solar cella device that converts the energy of the sun into electricity
sanctuaryan area for birds and animals to live and to be protected from dangerous conditions and being hunted
wildfirea large fire that spreads fast and causes much destruction
tidal wavea very large ocean wave caused by a storm or an underwater earthquake that when hits the land causes a lot of destruction
herbicidea chemical substance that kills plants, used for destroying plants that are not wanted
pollutantany substance that is harmful to the environment
to die outto cease to exist or disappear completely
rotthe process of of being destroyed via natural causes
oil riga large facility used for drilling oil or gas from underground or under the sea
acid rainrainfall made so acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, chiefly to forests and lakes.
typhoona tropical storm in the region of the Indian or western Pacific oceans
disposalthe act or process of getting rid of something, especially by throwing it away
leachwith reference to a soluble chemical or mineral- drain away from soil, ash, or similar material by the action of percolating liquid, especially rainwater.
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atomicrelated to an atom or atoms
nucleus(biology) the part of a cell that contains most of the genetic information
bonda linking force that holds atoms or ions together in any molecule or crystal
chargethe physical property in matter that causes it to experience a force in an electromagnetic field
density(physics) the degree to which a substance is compacted, measured by dividing its mass by its volume
gravity(physics) the universal force of attraction between any pair of objects with mass
particle(physics) any of the smallest units that energy or matter consists of, such as electrons, atoms, molecules, etc.
propertya feature or quality of something
instincta reaction or behaviour whose reason is innate, not a result of thinking
metabolismthe chemical processes through which food is changed into energy for the body to use
evolutionaryrelated to evolution or the slow and gradual development of something
organicproduced by or from or related to living things
evolution(biology) the slow and gradual development of living things throughout the history of the earth
genomethe complete set of genetic material of any living thing
mutation(biology) a change in the structure of the genes of an individual that causes them to develop different physical features
embryoan unhatched or unborn offspring in the process of development, especially a human offspring roughly from the second to the eighth week after fertilization
hybridan animal or plant with parents that belong to different breeds or varieties
clonea cell or a group of cells created through a natural or artificial process from a source that they are genetically identical to
to reproduce(of a living being) to produce offspring or more of itself
stimulussomething that encourages an activity or causes a reaction in a person or thing
synthesisthe act of producing a substance that exists in living beings
to accelerateto increase the velocity of something
to dissolve(of a solid) to become one with a liquid
acida water-soluble chemical substance that contains Hydrogen and has a sour taste or corrosive feature with a PH less than 7
aluminuma light silver-gray metal used primarily for making cooking equipment and aircraft parts
coppera metallic chemical element that has a red-brown color, primarily used as a conductor in wiring
leada heavy soft metal, used in making bullets, in plumbing and roofing, especially in the past
conductora substance that permits heat or electricity to pass through it or along it
crystala substance of small size and equal sides, formed naturally when turns to solid
gunpowdera type of powder that is explosive, used in making bullets, bombs, etc.
dynamitean explosive that is very powerful
compositionthe different elements that form something or the arrangement of these elements
to emitto release heat, light, sound, radiation, etc.
raya narrow beam of light, heat, or other form of energy
lasera device that produces a powerful and concentrated beam of light that can be used in medical procedures, for cutting metal objects, etc.
magnetan object that makes iron come toward it because of the magnetic field that it produces
thermalreferring to anything related to heat or temperature
to compressto press two things together or be pressed together to become smaller
generatora machine that produces electricity by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy
to evaporateto become gas or vapour from liquid
vacuuma space that is utterly devoid of matter


amateurlacking skill or not done in a professional way
authenticreal and not a copy
decorativeintended to look attractive rather than being of practical use
symbolicconsisting of or employing symbols
auction housea company in the business of selling items at auction
bronzea statue or any other artwork made of bronze
ceramican object such as a pot, bowl, etc. that is made by heating clay
canvasan oil painting done on a canvas
murala large painting done on a wall
oil paintingthe art or technique of painting with oil paint
silhouettea drawing that depicts the outline of someone or something that is in a single black colour and against a light background, often from the side
still lifea painting or drawing, representing objects that do not move, such as flowers, glassware, etc.; an artwork created using this method
printa picture or design created by pressing an engraved surface onto a paper or any other surface
depththe characteristic that gives an artwork or picture a three-dimensional aspect
finishthe last layer that is put on the surface of something as a way of protection or decoration or the substance that does this
harmonya pleasing combination of things in a way that forms a coherent whole
patronan individual who financially supports an artist, charity, cause, etc.
sculptorsomeone who makes works of art by carving or shaping wood, clay, metal, etc. into different forms
palettea thin oval board that a painter uses to mix colours and hold pigments on, with a hole for the thumb to go through
reproductionthe act or process of making a copy of an artistic or literary piece, a document, etc.
restorationthe act of repairing something such as an artwork, building, etc. to be in its original state
viewpointa certain way of thinking about a subject
watercoloura painting that is created using paints that are water-soluble
impressionisma movement in painting originated in 19th-century France that uses light and colour in a way that gives an impression rather than a detailed representation of the subject
modernisma style or movement in art, literature, and architecture developed at the beginning of the 20th century that greatly differs from ones that are traditional
realisma literary or artistic style that gives a lifelike representation of people, events, and objects
surrealisma 20th-century style of art and literature in which unrelated events or images are combined in an unusual way to represent the experiences of the mind
to carveto shape or create by cutting or sculpting, often using tools or a sharp instrument
to moldto give a soft substance a particular shape or form by placing it into a mold or pressing it
to poseto maintain a specific posture in order to be photographed or painted
to shadeto darken part of a picture or drawing using pencils, etc.
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an athletics meetingan event where various athletics sports are held
an athletics tracka running track
an away gamea football match played in the opposing teams stadium
a brisk walka fast walk
football fansomeone who likes football
to set a recordto achieve the best result in a sport
strenuous exerciseexercise that needs a lot of physical effort
a home gamea football match played in the teams own stadium
commit a foulbreak the rules of the game
defensethe action of preventing an opponent from scoring.
dribblethe act of moving the ball along with you by short kicks, bounces or hits in a game of football, basketball etc
strikera player who mainly attacks and scores goals, rather than defends
penalty areain football, the penalty area is the rectangular area in front of the goal.
centre circlethe circle marked at the centre of a playing surface (as in basketball, hockey, lacrosse, or soccer) where a centre jump, face-off, or kickoff takes place
boundarieslimits of the playing field that the players must stay within
servethe act of hitting the ball to the other player or team to start play
passing the ballan intentional transfer of the ball from one player to another of the same team
gain controltake over or win the ball, lead
bouncebouncing describes the ball moving, rapidly up, back, or away after hitting the surface
hurdling the act of jumping over an obstacle at a high speed or in a sprint.
durability time of onset and magnitude of deterioration in physiological-profiling characteristics over time during prolonged exercise
amateur amateur sports or activities are done by people as a hobby and not as a job
to cheer onpraise or encourage a player or competitor with shouts
umpirea person who controls play and makes sure that players act according to the rules in a sports event
sports memorabiliacollectables associated with sports
personal bestto achieve the best personal result so far in a sport
trophyobject such as a silver cup or plate that someone receives as a prize for winning a competition


antiseptica substance that prevents infection when applied to a wound, especially by killing bacteria
abortionthe intentional ending of a pregnancy, often done during the early stages
anaesthetica type of drug that makes the whole or part of the body unable to feel pain when administered
blood typeany of the types into which human blood is divided
thermometera device used to measure a person’s body temperature to assess for fever or abnormal temperature using various methods like oral, ear, armpit, or forehead readings
crutchone of a pair of sticks that people with movement difficulties put under their arms to help them walk or stand
healingthe process of making or becoming healthy once more
hospitalizationthe fact of being placed in a hospital for medical treatment
informed consentpermission given by a patient to receive a particular treatment, informed of all the possible consequences and risks
injectionthe action of putting a drug into a person’s body using a syringe
placeboa medicine without any physiological effect that is given to a control group in an experiment to measure the effectiveness of a new drug or to patients who think they need medicine when in reality they do not
remedya treatment or medicine for a disease or to reduce pain that is not severe
specimena small amount of something such as urine, blood, etc. that is taken for examination
nose joba surgical procedure performed on someone’s nose that changes its appearance to make it look more attractive
physiciana medical doctor who specializes in general medicine, not in surgery
caregiversomeone who looks after a child or an old, sick, or disabled person at home
to administerto give someone medicines, drugs, etc.
to cleanseto completely clean something, particularly the skin
to diagnoseto find out the cause of a problem or what disease a person has by examining the symptoms
to vaccinateto protect a person or an animal against a disease by giving them a vaccine
to admit(of a hospital) to take in a patient so that they can receive treatment
to discharge(of a wound or body part) to slowly release an infectious liquid, called pus
to immunizeto protect an animal or a person from a disease by vaccination
to stitchto join the edges of a wound together by a thread and needle
to reviveto make a person become conscious again
to sootheto reduce the severity of a pain
dumbunable to speak
pharmaceuticalrelated to the production, use, or sale of medicines
deafpartly or completely unable to hear
hygienethe steps one takes to promote health and avoid disease, particularly by cleaning things or being clean
to glow(of a person’s face) to look lively and healthy, specifically as a result of training and exercising
bluesa temporary state of feeling severe sadness and dejection
sightedcapable of seeing unlike a blind person
restrictput a limit to
terminally illan illness or condition which can’t be cured and is likely to lead to someone’s death
Hospital Warda ward is a room in a hospital which has beds for many people, often people who need similar treatment.
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run-down areasused to describe a building or area that is in poor condition
illiteracythe inability to read or write.
political asylumthe protection granted by a state to someone who has left their home country as a political refugee.
labour migrationMovement of persons from one state to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment
homeless peoplepeople who do not have a home, usually because they are poor
povertythe state of being very poor
to make a pleaa serious and emotional request for something
to be in desperate needin distress and having a great need or desire. moved by or showing despair or hopelessness; despairing.
to breed crimerefer to a situation that encourages criminal activity
public disorderany behaviour in a public place which is likely to cause or intends to cause harassment, alarm or distress
vigilantkeeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties
voluntarydone, given, or acting of one’s own free will
unfit for human habitationany dwelling found to be unsafe or unhealthy for people to live in
affordable housinghouses, flats, etc. that can be bought or rented by people who do not earn a lot of money
urgent short-term measuresa temporary way to deal with a problem or situation
permittedofficially allow (someone) to do something
draconian measureslaws or rules that are really harsh and repressive
charitable projectsthe help, money, etc., given to the needy
street childrenpoor or homeless children who live on the streets of a city, town, or village
deprived childrena child who lacks proper parental care or control, subsistence, education, or other care and control for their physical, mental, or emotional well-being
deep povertythe state of being extremely poor
poverty linethe estimated minimum level of income needed to secure the necessities of life
force for changemajor sources of social change include population growth and composition, culture and technology, the natural environment, and social conflict.
to incite violencewhen someone encourages people to behave aggressively or illegally
natural disastersa natural event such as a flood, earthquake, or hurricane that causes great damage or loss of life
poor sanitary conditionsa serious threat to the health of men, women and children living in these communities.
famineextreme scarcity of food
to claim benefitsto request payment for money from a government department or company
destitute peoplepeople without money, food, a home, or possessions
poverty alleviationaims to improve the quality of life for those people currently living in poverty
margin of societythose people who live outside of socially accepted norms
penurythe state of being very poor; extreme poverty
irreversible damagenot possible to change; impossible to return to
life expectancythe average period that a person may expect to live
force for goodaction inspired by a genuine concern for others
low-income familiesfamilies whose incomes do not exceed eighty percent of the median income for the area
to sleep roughsleep in uncomfortable conditions, typically outdoors
the social fabricthe relationships and connections we make with one another; making us all a part of the common thread of society as a whole
asylum seekera person who has left their home country as a political refugee and is seeking asylum in another
riots eruptan occasion when a large number of people behave in a noisy, violent, and uncontrolled way in public, often as a protest
social exclusiona situation where not everyone has equal access to the opportunities and services
antisocial behaviourbehaviour that causes nuisance, annoyance or distress in society
to live below the breadlinemeans living at a low standard, having an income at which one is considered poor
to live from hand to mouthwhen you spend all the money you earn on basic needs such as food and do not have anything left


to aceto perform extremely well in something, especially a test
to appointto give a responsibility or job to someone
to collaborateto work with someone else in order to create something or reach the same goal
to commenceto start something or to start happening
to follow upto discover more about something
to multitaskto simultaneously do more than one thing
to postponeto arrange or put off an activity or an event for a later time than its original schedule
to recruitto employ people for a company, etc.
to resignto officially announce one’s departure from a job, position, etc.
hecticbusy and full of activity
intensive(in business) concentrating on or using something a lot, such as equipment, etc.
monotonousboring because of being the same thing all the time
one-on-one(of an activity) between only two people
rewarding(of an activity) making one feel satisfied by giving one a desirable outcome
stimulatingcausing excitement
tediouscontinuing for too long and boring
underemployed(of a person) not having much work to do in their job or being unable to use their full potential
boardrooma room where the board of directors meet
internshipthe period during which a student or recent graduate starts working somewhere specific, sometimes without receiving any money, in order to meet some requirements to qualify for something or to gain work-relate
vacancya position or job that is available
co-workersomeone who works with someone else has the same job
supervisorsomeone who observes or directs a person or an activity
amateursomeone who is not skilled or experienced enough for a specific activity
intervieweesomeone who answers the questions during an interview
sick leavea specific period of time granted to a person who is ill to temporarily leave work
maternity leavea period of time when a woman can take a break from working and stay home before and after the birth of her child
multitasking(of people) the ability to perform more than one task simultaneously
labourwork, particularly difficult physical work
discriminationthe practice of treating a person or different categories of people less fairly than others
pensiona monthly payment that a retired person receives from the government or a private company, for which they used to work
referencea letter written by a former employer about a former employee who has applied for a new job, giving information about them
schedulea plan of all objectives and their specific time to be carried out by someone
workforceall the individuals who work in a particular company, industry, country, etc.
workloadthe amount of work that a person or organization has to do
noticea formal statement or letter declaring that one intends to end an agreement, especially an employment or residential contract
incrementan increase in someone’s salary that happens at regular intervals
professional courtesyfree service that people of the same profession provide for each other, especially common among physicians
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acquisitionthe act of buying or obtaining something, especially something that is valuable
MBAa second university degree in business management
associatea member of an organization with limited membership
retailera store, person, or business that sells goods to the public for their own use, not for resale
commodity(economics) a basic product or raw material that can be purchased or sold
merchandisegoods offered for sale or the ones bought or sold
cooperativean organization or business that is jointly owned and run by its members
audita formal inspection of a business’s financial records to see if they are correct and accurate or not
deficitthe difference between the needed amount that is higher than the amount that is available, especially money
expenditurethe act of using money
invoicea list of goods or services received and their total cost
margin(business) the difference between the amount of money spent to buy or produce something and the amount of money gained from its sale
turnoverthe overall amount of profit made by a business or company over a specific period of time
yieldan amount of profit gained from an investment or business
enterprisea company or business
franchisea permission granted to a person or group by a government or company that enables them to sell their services or products in a specific area
start-upa business or company that has just begun operation
Ltdused after the name of a company to indicate that its owners are not legally responsible for all the money that the company owes but only for the amount they have invested in it
venturea business activity that is mostly very risky
netfinal amount after the deduction of all costs
cooperativeinvolving the partnership of a group of people working toward a common goal
incorporatedhaving become a legal business company
managerialrelated to managers and their work
profitable(of a business) making or yielding profit
to administerto be responsible for a company, organization, etc. and manage its affairs, including financial matters
to closeto finalize a business deal
to endorseto publicly state that one supports or approves of someone or something
to mergeto join together or make things do so
to publicizeto draw the public’s attention to something by giving information about it as an act of advertisement
to take overto take control of a company or business, particularly by buying more shares
patenta formal document that gives someone the right to be the only one who makes, uses, or sells an invention or product for a limited amount of time
prthe work of creating a good image of a person, product, or company among people
shippingthe act of transporting goods, particularly by sea
operationalrelated to the way in which a business, organization, machine, etc. functions


staminathe mental or physical strength that makes one continue doing something hard for a long time
traumaa medical condition of the mind caused by extreme shock, which could last for a very long time
breakdowna condition in which a person becomes so anxious or depressed that they can no longer handle their everyday life
amnesiathe loss of memories, including facts, information and experiences
anxietya feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome
neurosisa mental condition that is not caused by organic disease, involving symptoms of stress (depression, anxiety, obsessive behaviour, hypochondria) but not a radical loss of touch with reality
human behaviourthe potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity throughout human life
ready-made personalityprepared mentally or physically for some experience or action
personality assessmentthe measurement of personal characteristics
semantic memorya type of long-term memory involving the capacity to recall words, concepts, or numbers
hypocriticalbehaving in a way that suggests one has higher standards or more noble beliefs than is the case.
lenientmore merciful or tolerant than expected
narrow-mindednot willing to listen to or tolerate other people’s views
patronisingtreat in a way that is apparently kind or helpful but that betrays a feeling of superiority.
pushyexcessively or unpleasantly self-assertive or ambitious.
vindictivehaving or showing a strong or unreasoning desire for revenge
self-consciousnessundue awareness of oneself, one’s appearance, or one’s actions
self-centredpreoccupied with oneself and one’s affairs
bad-temperedeasily annoyed or made angry.
 bundle of nervessomeone who is extremely anxious or tense
boisterousnoisy, energetic, and cheerful.
humiliatingthe embarrassment and shame you feel when someone makes you appear stupid, or when you make a mistake in public
self-pityingsadness for yourself because you think you have a lot of problems or have suffered a lot
anxiety disordersa type of mental health condition, psychological problems
a stimulus/stimulia thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
inherit traitsthe traits or characteristics that are transferred from parents to the offspring, genetically
conformitywhen people change their beliefs, attitudes or actions to more closely match those held by groups to which they belong or want to belong
mindsetthe established set of attitudes held by someone
obediencecompliance with an order, request, or law or submission to another’s authority
peer groupa group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests
self-esteemconfidence in one’s own worth or abilities; self-respect
self-image is how you perceive yourself
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indispensableabsolutely necessary
harness the poweruse the maximum of something
ingenuity gapthe disparity between the technical knowledge and expertise needed to solve environmental, social, and behavioural problems
necessitythe state or fact of being required
blueprinta design plan or other technical drawing
feasiblepossible to do easily or conveniently
artisana worker in a skilled trade, especially one that involves making things by hand
breakthroughan important invention or discovery that can help deal with a problem or improve something
cutting edgethe most advanced stage in the development of something
state-of-the-artthe most modern of its type
obsoleteno longer in use or valid
perpetual motiona state in which movement or action is or appears to be continuous and unceasing
radiationthe emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization.
pendulum clocka clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element
padlocka detachable lock hanging by a pivoted hook on the object fastened
light bulba glass or transparent container, usually rounded, with something inside that produces light
electric current a flow of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space
steam enginean engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power
the industrial revolutiona period of global transition of the human economy towards more efficient
to carry informationthe action of taking information to a certain place or person
binocularsan optical instrument with a lens for each eye, used for viewing distant objects
lensa curved piece of glass, plastic, or other transparent material, used in cameras, glasses
touch screena display device which allows the user to interact with a computer by touching areas on the screen
discover a cure for sthinvent a medicine
genetically modified foodsfoods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering
to emergebecome apparent or prominent
to simplifymake (something) simpler or easier to do or understand
casea container or box for storing something in
hard drivean internal or external computer component that stores data, such as the operating system, applications, and user files
motherboard a computer’s central communications backbone connectivity point

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