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Grammar

The use & example of Present Perfect Tense

Level: A1, A2
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AFFIRMATIVE FORM
QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVE FORMS

AFFIRMATIVE FORM

Present Perfect consists of the conjugated auxiliary verb to have and past participle – the third form of the proper verb.

Regular verbs are similar as in Past Simple – we form it by adding the -ed ending. Also, there are similar spelling rules when it comes to formation of Past Participle as in the “past”.

I have walked around the town.
She has talked to him.
We have travelled a lot recently.


QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVE FORMS

We form questions through the inversion:
You have written a letter.
Have you written a letter?
We form negative sentences by adding not to the auxiliary verb have. We often use a short form of the verb:

have + not = haven’t
has + not = hasn’t

The main verb in question and negative sentences has the past participle form.

I have lived here for two years.
I haven’t lived there for years.

Usage

We never use Present Perfect if there is a time expression concerning the past, e.g. 10 minutes ago, yesterday, last month, in 2000. In such situations, we use Simple Past.

I travelled to London last month.

Present Perfect  is used example
to describe activities that happened in the past but are related to the present I’ve already seen this film.
She’s gone to Brazil.
to express actions that have occurred recently I haven’t seen Mary recently.
She has just left.
to describe activities that started in the past but continue until now, in this kind of sentences we often use expressions since, for, ever, never I have never been to Australia.
They haven’t smoked for two years.

Time expressions

The most common time expressions in Present Perfect are:

since (last Monday)
for (two weeks)
already
before
ever
recently
lately
never before
never
just

 

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