Nella prima parte dell’esame scritto Cambridge C2 Advanced Proficient (CPE) ti viene chiesto di scrivere un saggio – questo è obbligatorio. La questione di cui parlerà il lavoro è sempre discorsiva. Lo stile discorsivo è utilizzato nella scrittura accademica e richiede un alto livello di competenza linguistica.
Devi basare il tuo saggio sul materiale fornito, che sarà sotto forma di due testi, ciascuno lungo circa 100 parole. I testi si baseranno su una varietà di fonti autentiche e contemporanee.
Devi rispondere alla domanda usando tra 240 e 280 parole..
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Struttura
Fare brevemente riferimento all’argomento di entrambi i testi.
|Contenuto principale: paragrafo 1|
Frase introduttiva + Punto 1 parafrasato + Punto 2 parafrasato
|Contenuto principale: paragrafo 2|
Frase introduttiva + Punto 3 parafrasato + Punto 4 parafrasato
|Contenuto principale: Sezione 3|
La tua opinione
Osservazioni conclusive – nessuna nuova idea.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Guida
Ecco un modo semplice per scrivere un saggio perfetto.
Di seguito sono riportati i testi di partenza che useremo come esempio nella nostra guida percreare il saggio perfetto. I testi sono contraddittori o complementari.
Examinations are not fair.
Making judgments about the ability of students based on examinations that take place just once or perhaps twice a year is simply not fair. So many students fail to show their true ability due to anxiety, stress and a number of other factors. Many students who do well in exams do so simply by cramming facts into their heads the week before the exam, to be forgotten by the following weekend. Surely assessment of the work done in class and at home throughout the school year would be a fairer system?
Classroom assessment is idealistic.
It’s all very well to talk about teachers judging their students work in the classroom, and students working alone at home on their projects, but everyone knows that continuous assessment doesn’t work like that. Teachers are only human, and tend to be softer on their students than an examiner would be (or, in a worse scenario, harder on a student they don’t like). Parents or older siblings help students with the projects they have to do at home, even if it’s just coming up with ideas for them. Exams may not be fun, but at least we get to see what each individual student is capable of.
Testo 1. Punti chiave:
1) Unfair to judge a year’s performance just once or twice a year.
2) This unfair system forces students to temporary parrot-fashion learning
Testo 2. Punti chiave:
3) Continuous assessment depends too much on the teacher who may be too lenient or too strict.
4) Parents and siblings may give an unfair advantage to students over others who don’t have help at home.
L’introduzione dovrebbe informare il lettore sull’argomento del saggio.
Introduzione: The methodology for assessing students’ knowledge is crucial and is reflected in their performance and future in education. Such an issue is analyzed in the two contrasting passages that this essay touches upon.
Ricorda che questo non è il momento migliore per esprimere opinioni, dovresti includerle solo alla fine del riepilogo.
Qui dobbiamo dimostrare agli esaminatori che abbiamo compreso appieno il testo. Nel primo e nel secondo paragrafo, parafrasiamo 4 punti chiave e li commentiamo brevemente.
Paragrafo (1) = frase introduttiva + punto 1 + punto 2
Paragrafo 1: [frase introduttiva] The first author considers the annual assessment of students’ performance as inadequate. [Parafrasato primo (1) punto] Knowing that your only chance to prove your competence relies on a couple of questions that need to be answered within a suffocating time limit cannot but fill you with anxiety. [Parafrasato secondo (2) punto]To make matters worse, even when the students manage to cope with the stress it is doubtful whether they gain any academic benefit. All they do is switch off their critical thinking and employ their parrot fashion learning. When the exams are over they ‘delete’ all this array of incongruent information.
Paragrafo (2) = frase introduttiva + punto 3 + punto 4
Paragrafo 2: [frase introduttiva] Conversely, the second text sees the exams as the only reliable means of school assessment. [Parafrasato terzo (3) punto] If the students were continually evaluated throughout the year they would be at the mercy of the bias of their teachers. If the professors are positively predisposed they will inflate the marks and if they have any sort of conflict with their pupils they could use the marks as a form of punishment. [Parafrasato quarto (4) punto] Moreover, the project work that has often been hailed as the creative alternative of barren exams may prove to be a hoax. More often than not it is other family members that do the work and the students undeservingly reap the rewards.
Opinione: [frase introduttiva] While I agree that the exams entail counterproductive stress that may spoil the true meaning of education, I cannot overlook the fact that they are an objective and trustworthy method of evaluation. If the written tests accounted for a proportion of the pupils’ overall mark and the rest was completed with projects and class participation we could successfully combine the profits of these too seemingly contrasting methods.
In sintesi, vuoi davvero mostrare agli esaminatori che comprendi il testo e i punti chiave, quindi dovrebbe essere un’analisi equilibrata del testo che hai appena letto. Non dare nuove informazioni, digli quello che hai già detto
Conclusioni: All things considered, the examinations can contribute to an objective assessment of school performance as long as they are combined with elements of continuous assessment.
The methodology for assessing students’ knowledge is crucial and is reflected in their performance and future in education. Such an issue is analyzed in the two contrasting passages that this essay touches upon.
The first author considers the annual assessment of students’ performance as inadequate. Knowing that your only chance to prove your competence relies on a couple of questions that need to be answered within a suffocating time limit cannot but fill you with anxiety. To make matters worse, even when the students manage to cope with the stress it is doubtful whether they gain any academic benefit. All they do is switch off their critical thinking and employ their parrot fashion learning. When the exams are over they ‘delete’ all this array of incongruent information.
Conversely, the second text sees the exams as the only reliable means of school assessment. If the students were continually evaluated throughout the year they would be at the mercy of the bias of their teachers. If the professors are positively predisposed they will inflate the marks and if they have any sort of conflict with their pupils they could use the marks as a form of punishment. Moreover, the project work that has often been hailed as the creative alternative of barren exams may prove to be a hoax. More often than not it is other family members that do the work and the students undeservingly reap the rewards.
While I agree that the exams entail counterproductive stress that may spoil the true meaning of education, I cannot overlook the fact that they are an objective and trustworthy method of evaluation. If the written tests accounted for a proportion of the pupils’ overall mark and the rest was completed with projects and class participation we could successfully combine the profits of these too seemingly contrasting methods.
All things considered, the examinations can contribute to an objective assessment of school performance as long as they are combined with elements of continuous assessment.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Parafrasare i punti chiave
Come già sai, il tuo compito è trovare quattro punti chiave che devi analizzare e commentary. L’errore più comune è che gli studenti spesso copiano il testo originale alla lettera. Come probabilmente puoi immaginare, non otterrai un buon voto per aver preso scorciatoie e gli esaminatori si aspettano che tu parafrasi correttamente questi punti.
Vediamo alcuni esempi di corretta parafrasi in modo da sapere come dovrebbe essere e cosa evitare:
..as are vehicle exclusion zones or parking restrictions in busy pedestrian areas. However, it – also makes sense to encourage motorists to become less reliant on their car. This can | be achieved by making public transport more efficient and promoting the benefits of car- sharing with work colleagues, thus reducing weekly fuel bills.
The first argument makes particular mention of creating vehicle exclusion zones…
The second argument points out that travelling by car can be reduced if the government makes public transport more efficient…
come puoi vedere, gli studenti hanno ripetuto le parole vehicle exclusion zones e poi makes transport more efficient – ovviamente non è un terribile errore, ma si può fare di meglio.
The first argument makes particular mention of creating
vehicle exclusion zones… areas where motorists are prohibited from driving
The second argument points out that travelling by car can be reduced if the government
makes public transport more efficient… improves the efficiency of public transport
spero che tu possa vedere anche l’enorme differenza che fa. Un punto così parafrasato impressionerebbe sicuramente l’esaminatore.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Esempi di risposta
Read the two texts below. Write an essay summarising and evaluating the keypoints from both texts. Use your own words throughout as far as possible, and include your own ideas in your answers.
Teenagers as consumers
It is virtually impossible to escape the influence of the media these days, and particularly if you are a teenager with access not just to television and radio, but also the internet at all times of the day and night. Advertisers look upon teenagers as a blank canvas whose tastes and needs are there to be moulded by them through their advertisements. Advertisers and marketing people have become adept at reading the teenage mind, making young people believe that they need to own certain items in order to be accepted by their peer group, or simply to look cool.
Teenagers: a driving force
Advertising responds to young people’s delight in what is new by developing sophisticated and innovative, often humorous advertisements which can be seen on television and cinema screens and on billboards around our towns and cities. The tastes of this generation of young people have had an impact on advertisers worldwide. However, it is the energy of the young, above all, that has influenced the world of marketing and has kept it on its toes, pushing the creative boundaries to become almost an art form. That is the power of young people.
Esempio di risposta:
These texts both deal with the relationship between teenagers and advertising.
The first one focuses on how advertisers exploit young people, taking advantage both of teenage preoccupation with the media and of their susceptibility to peer pressure combined with a wish to appear ‘cool’. The second text is less critical of the relationship between marketing and young people. It presents the young as having a very positive influence on the quality of modern adverts, helping to make them much wittier and more original than ever before. This text maintains that teenagers’ impact on advertising derives partly from their predilection for what is intriguingly new but also, more particularly, from their own creative energy. This energy has been channeled into advertising, raising it arguably to the level of an art form.
While I appreciate the arguments put forward in both texts, I tend to feel more in sympathy with the approach of the first one. I suspect that advertisers are quite cold-heartedly prepared to exploit the youth market, keen to capture the attention – and the cash – of the new generation and well aware of how young people are perhaps more easily influenced than their more cynical elders.
I would accept that advertising can be very creative and I personally often find an advert in a magazine or a TV commercial attractive to look at or enjoyably humorous. It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that many people with artistic talents are attracted into the advertising profession. However, I do not see that as having any direct connection with teenagers. Those who create the most original adverts are certainly likely to be young but in their twenties or early thirties rather than their teens. Moreover the appeal of the more sophisticated advert is surely just as powerful for the older generation as for teenagers.
Read the two texts below. Write an essay summarizing and evaluating the key points from both texts. Use your own words throughout as far as possible, and include your own ideas in your answers.
Killing for nothing
Under no circumstances should capital punishment be condoned. It is a barbaric form of punishment, which serves no useful purpose as it obviously does not act as a deterrent. In the USA, for example, the use of capital punishment increased greatly during the eighties and the nineties but with no corresponding effect on the crime rate. Another argument says that it effectively deals with people who are a danger to society. But in any case, they spend years, even decades, on death row while their appeals are used up, and might as well just be sentenced to life imprisonment with no possibility of parole.
The system by which people are convicted is simply not as foolproof as some people would have us believe, and the odds against an innocent person being killled are just too high. While the risk of this happening remains a very real possibility, the death sentence is unacceptable. In this age of DNA evidence, many people in
American prisons awaiting execution have been found to be innocent. The other problem is prejudice. Even if a person is found guilty and convicted of a crime, they are likely to get a worse sentence if they are from an ethnic
minority, and disproportionately large numbers of these people are executed every year in the States.
Esempio di risposta:
Both extracts above take a negative stance on the hotly debated issue of death penalty.
The first author tries to dispel the myth of the death sentence “acting as a deterrent”. He claims that the long standing use of this harsh punishment in the USA has not proven its effectiveness in curbing crime rates. However, his argument is unconvincing because criminality could have been worse if death penalty was not in effect. Nevertheless, the writer correctly remarks that there is no need to take someone’s life in order to protect society since we can achieve the same result by simply giving them a life sentence.
The second extract persuasively strengthens the argument against this irreversible penalty by citing the numerous incidents of innocent people who have been wrongly convicted and sometimes even executed, only to find out that more recent genetic material proves that they were innocent. The author also claims that the welldocumented “prejudice against ethnic minorities” is a reason to abolish the death sentence. Even if we accept the latter argument as a fact, we can not so easily jump to the conclusion that the suspicion of some judges having preconceived ideas should strip our legal system of one of its most powerful weapons.
Personally, I feel that death penalty should remain in effect for extreme cases of serial killers or insane criminals who show no remorse for their actions. Since, nowadays, we have at our disposal the invaluable assistance of genetic evidence we can reach verdicts that are beyond any shadow of doubt while at the same time we retain a
strong disincentive in the ammunition of our legal system.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Argomenti
Write an essay summarising and evaluating the key points from both texts. Use your own words throughout as far as possible, and include your own ideas in your answers.
Behavioural change Nowadays, in some cultures there may often be confusion between generations about what is acceptable behaviour in certain situations. Older people sometimes complain, for example, about the real or imagined rudeness of others, such as in the use of electronic devices in public places. However, the younger generation do not regard electronic communication as intrusive, but rather as fundamental to their way of life. Only increased mutual understanding is likely to resolve potential conflict or confusion in any society. In this case, as in all others, it pays to be aware of other people’s points of view.
Follow my leader?
Should we always aim to do what society expects of us? No, what society needs is individuality. Worrying about what other people think inhibits enthusiasm and creativity. Nothing new is ever achieved by conforming to expected social norms. This is not only true for society’s innovators: everybody needs a strong sense of their own worth as an individual. This is essential for psychological well-being and the ability to function effectively in one’s personal and professional life. Paying too much attention to society’s conventions can be counter-productive in these and other ways.
Write an essay summarising and evaluating the key points from both texts. Use your own words throughout as far as possible and include your own ideas in your answers.
The Financial Costs of Stress
Research carried out by the Health and Safety Council estimates that stress and mental illness continues to be neglected by many businesses, both small and large. And the economic impact of this is huge, costing employers around £26bn a year. Stress at work can lead to a lack of concentration, fatigue and low motivation, all of which will cost the company in terms of low productivity, customer satisfaction and the very reputation of the company itself. Employers are being urged to become more “emotionally intelligent” and to improve the way they deal with stress and mental illness.
Speak up about Stress
Many people find it difficult to talk about their feelings, particularly if we’re feeling weak or vulnerable. However, when suffering from stress it’s vital you seek help. It’s important to feel you can talk honestly with a close friend, a loved one, a work colleague or doctor about what’s going on. Stress is easily diagnosed and there is plenty you can do to successfully treat and manage stress. One of the most effective of these is to share your feelings with those you trust. Remember that accepting help and support is not a sign of weakness. Close relationships are vital to helping you get through this tough time.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Lista di controllo
Dopo aver scritto il testo, puoi verificare tu stesso se hai incluso tutto ciò che dovresti nel tuo lavoro utilizzando la lista di controllo qui sotto.
Come farlo? Basta controllare il testo rispondendo alle domande una per una:
- Ho incluso tutte le informazioni chiave fornite nell’attività?
- Ho scritto solo le informazioni rilevanti per l’attività?
- Ho sviluppato a sufficienza i punti chiave del compito utilizzando le mie idee?
- Ho incluso riferimenti o esempi per supportare le mie idee o informazioni?
- Ho raggiunto gli obiettivi principali del testo (ad esempio, spiegazione, convinzione, suggerimento, scuse, confronto, ecc.)?
- Ho correttamente combinato fatti e opinioni in conformità con i requisiti del compito?
- Ho usato lo stile e il genere corretti richiesti per il compito?
- Ho seguito la convenzione appropriata per il tipo di testo?
- Ho organizzato le mie idee in modo chiaro e coerente utilizzando la struttura più appropriata?
- Ho utilizzato correttamente altri elementi organizzativi a seconda del tipo di testo (ad esempio titoli, intestazioni, introduzioni, finali, ecc.)?
- La relazione tra le mie idee è facile da capire per il lettore? (Ad esempio, ho usato frasi di collegamento appropriate, pronomi, ecc. per fare riferimento a vari aspetti nel testo?)
- Ho espresso adeguatamente le mie idee con equilibrio e spazio per ognuna?
- Ho usato un vocabolario ampio?
- Sto ripetendo le stesse parole e frasi?
- Ho usato una serie di strutture grammaticali semplici e più complesse?
- Ho usato correttamente frasi comuni che sono rilevanti per l’attività o l’argomento specifico?
- Il mio uso della grammatica è corretto?
- La mia ortografia è corretta?
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Consigli
- Identifica e sottolinea i punti chiave in entrambi i testi di partenza. Assicurati di includerli quando scrivi il tuo saggio.
- Riassumi i punti chiave con parole tue.
- Usa uno stile di scrittura accademico (stile formale o neutro).
- Devi strutturare bene le tue idee, usando introduzioni, paragrafi e frasi di collegamento appropriate.
- È necessario trarre conclusioni in base alle informazioni fornite nella risposta
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Schema di punteggio
Il linguaggio dovrebbe essere valutativo, discutibile e comparativo (tra due testi), narrative (puoi usare un aneddoto personale) e speculative (probabili risultati). È possibile utilizzare il vocabolario per descrivere le condizioni di lavoro, (np. „’part-time/full-time’, ‘job sharing scheme’, ‘flexible working conditions’, ‘homeworker/homeworking’ itp.). Non deve essere perfettamente accurato, ma si possono commettere solo errori minimi.
Dovrebbe essere abbastanza formale, in linea con i requisiti di un saggio accademico. Il lettore
Il saggio deve essere suddiviso in paragrafi chiari, che devono essere opportunamente collegati. Il formato dovrebbe essere quello di un saggio standard, cioè senza titoli nel contenuto principale.
Dovrebbe contenere un riassunto dei punti più importanti di ciascun testo. In un saggio scritto correttamente, è necessario includere una valutazione di questi punti chiave e le opinion dell’autore sull’argomento.
C2 Proficient (CPE) Saggio: Frasi ed espressioni utili
Di seguito troverai un vocabolario utile che puoi utilizzare per organizzare i tuoi contenuti. Nonostante si tratti di una scorciatoia, se impari qualche frase comune a ogni paragrafo, riuscirai sicuramente a creare un testo molto coerente e ben strutturato.
The first text suggests that…..
The second text raises the issue of …..
The writer is of the opinion that….
Additionally, it is ragued that…..
The two texts contrast differing views of…..
According to the first passage…….
Personaly, i …………….
The second text put forward……
I believe that………
In conclusuon , it is my opinion that……
As opposed to
In the sense that…..
For this reason……..
On the whole….
For the most part….
As a rule……
It is often that….
It is usually the case that…..
People to regard…..
The reality is that…..
With respect to…
In the case of…
In terms of….
With the exception of…..
From the ….. point of view….
They are seen as…..
As far as ……are / is concerned……
On the question of….
No one would dispute…….
One argument in favour of this is ….
In support of…..
It is true that……
At the same time….
In actual fact…..
On the other hand….
In contrast to….
Set/ weighed against this is…..